By Laura McPherson
Tommo So is a Dogon language with nearly 60,000 audio system in Mali, West Africa. As simply the second one complete grammatical description of a Dogon language, this quantity is a serious source for fixing the secret of Dogon's genetic association with different languages in Africa. Tommo So is an SOV language with keeping apart nominal morphology and agglutinative verbal morphology; suffixes at the verb mark tense/aspect/negation in addition to topic contract. The phonology is delicate to degrees of verbal morphology in that variable vowel concord applies much less usually as one strikes to outer layers of the morphology. The tone approach of Tommo So is of typological curiosity in either its phonological and syntactic instantiations. Phonologically, it's a two-tone method of H and L, yet those special tones distinction with a surface-underspecified tone. Grammatically, the lexical tone of a be aware is usually overwritten by means of syntactically-induced overlays. for instance, an inalienable noun's tone may be changed with L whether it is possessed by way of a non-pronominal possessor, and by way of both H or HL if the possessor is pronominal. The language has additionally innovated a sequence of locative quasi-verbs and concentration debris delicate to pragmatic elements like simple task.
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Extra info for A Grammar of Tommo So
B/), that place of articulation is contrastive for voiceless stops (/p/ vs. /t, k/) and that nasality is contrastive for labial stops (/p/ vs. /m/). 2 /b/ The last subsection showed that /b/, fully voiced in Tommo So, often stands in for a word-medial /f/ in loanwords. It is also stands in for /v/ in French loanwords like avion ‘airplane’, yielding Tommo So pronunciation àbíɔ̀n. Native /b/ undergoes no allophonic variation. Voicing, nasality, place, and sonorancy are all contrastive for voiced stops.
5 /ɛ/ The vowel /ɛ/ is a front mid unrounded vowel, speciﬁed as [-ATR]. It contrasts with /ɔ/ in backness (and rounding), with /i/ and /a/ in height, and with /e/ in ATR. 6 /e/ The vowel /e/ is a front mid unrounded vowel with a [+ATR] speciﬁcation. It contrasts with /o/ in backness (and rounding), with /i/ and /a/ in height, and with /ɛ/ in ATR. 7 /i/ The vowel /i/ is a high front unrounded vowel. It has the allophone [ə] in the metrically weak second syllable position in verbs like tɛ́ ŋíndɛ́ [tɛ́ŋə́ndɛ́] ‘turn on lights’.
I will discuss this in conjunction with verbal inﬂectional paradigms below. The basic form of the verb in main clauses is as follows: (2) [stem- (derivational suﬃx(es))] – aspect/negation – subject marking This ﬁnal subject marking is achieved through the addition of the following subject suﬃxes: (3) 1sg 2sg 3sg -m -w 1pl 2pl 3pl -y -y (-N) I have placed the third person plural suﬃx in parentheses because there is no single suﬃx that surfaces in each inﬂected form. Rather, the third person plural seems to have at least some nasal element that morphs and fuses with the aspectual suﬃx.
A Grammar of Tommo So by Laura McPherson