By Andrew Gladding Whiteside
This ebook is an account of the emergence of a countrywide Socialist social gathering from the German nationalist hard work stream within the multi nationwide Austrian empire. made from unions mainly focused on preserving employees of German nationality from the contest of inexpensive Czech hard work, the German nationalist exertions move used to be most powerful in Bohemia, the place the contention among Czechs and Germans within the hard work marketplace used to be such a lot acute. a lot of Austrian was once in northern Bohemia, and because it elevated within the latter 1/2 the 19th century huge riumbers of Czechs moved from the nation-state into the economic facilities. Many German staff have been displaced by means of the Czech immigrants, who have been familiar with decrease criteria of residing and hence keen to simply accept reduce pay. The anger of the German staff built into an extreme hatred of the Czechs, the Czechs resented German domination, and due to the mutual enmity, the Socialist foreign unions break up into German and Czech sections. a few of these grew to become separate German and Czech nationalist unions. different German nationalist unions grew out of the protecting institutions that have been geared up by means of gro. ups of German staff opposed to the Czech hazard. round the flip of the century the leaders of a few of the extra militant German nationalist unions made up our minds that they can additional the contributors' pursuits extra successfully if the unions have been affiliated with a political celebration below their very own keep an eye on: collaboration with radical nationalists had proved disappointing.
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Extra info for Austrian National Socialism before 1918
More than one million (1,007,384) had been born in Czech prefectures. In other words, 22% of the Bohemians living in a prefecture to which they had migrated came from German districts, 67% from Czech districts. While these figures refer to all Bohemia, and many Czech migrants went to the industrial city of Prague, they show that Czechs were three times as mobile as Germans. It was the Czechs far more than the Germans who appeared in a community as strangers, seeking work at any price. Rauchberg shows further that a third of the immigrants into German prefectures came from Czech prefectures and that more 4 One of his chief sources was the Oesterreichische Statistik published yearly by the K.
THE MIGRATIONS IN BOHEMIA 45 German workers in the handicraft industries as in the mines and factories felt the impact of Czech immigration. It has been said that the handicrafts in once German districts were largely taken over by Czechs because the working conditions were already so bad that German youths avoided them. Many Germans, nevertheless, remained in them, and their plight was made worse by the influx of cheap Czech labor. Among the industries that were chiefly, or to a significant extent, carried on by handicraftsmen, the greatest with respect to production and labor force was textiles.
123-132. 22 Medical rejections for military service in Austria (excluding Hungary) rose 15% between 1870 and 1880. In heavily industrialized northeastern Bohemia only 129 out of 1,000 men called up for the draft could be taken. Of every 1,000 factory workers called in Gablonz, only 44 were passed, in the Reichenberg district only 35, in the city of Reichenberg only 33. 23 In seventeen major cities of Austria more than 50% of the population in 1900 was living in unsanitary attics and cellars. 24 The flight from the land originally induced by the pressure of population growth was accelerated by the mechanization of agriculture and the lure of industrial wages.
Austrian National Socialism before 1918 by Andrew Gladding Whiteside